The following report summarizes our research to date.
The First Study
used trained observers to compare the behavior of 21 students (grades 3-8) before and after the use of Revibe, in order to analyze the efficacy of vibration reminders to improve on-task behavior. (Fall 2015)
The Second Study
was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Education and conducted by a third party research group with 50 students (grades 3-5) in a mock classroom laboratory and in real classrooms during school hours, in order to gather data on the use of Revibe in school. (Summer 2017)
The Third Study
was a data analysis completed using a cross-sample of 1,600 students (grades 1-12), in order to examine real-life improvements made by customers of Revibe. (Spring 2019)
All data has been de-identified to protect the privacy of our customers and study participants, as well as the security of our data. Results may vary across users, settings, etc...and do not imply or suggest any performance claims about Revibe. Revibe is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
We would like to thank the following individuals and organizations for their participation and funding of this research:
- United States Department of Education
- Dr. Cynthia Pritchard and BioTechnology Transfer
- Innovation Fund North Carolina
- NC IDEA
- Wake County Public Schools
- Franklin Academy
- Multi-Health Systems (MHS)
- Dr. Melissa De Rosier, Jim Thomas and 3C Institute for Social Development
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A three month pilot study was held in order to: a) provide data on the changes in on-task behavior with Revibe, b) measure to what extent (if any) habituation occured while using Revibe, and c) observe any adverse effects of Revibe (increased distraction, annoyance to the wearer or their classmates, skin irritation, etc.)
The study was conducted at two sites (a charter elementary and charter middle school in North Carolina). There were 21 children (17 boys and 4 girls) in grades 3-8 who participated. All students were evaluated at the beginning of the study to establish a baseline for their on-task behavior. Nine of the 21 students displayed on-task behavior for a majority (more than 90%) of the time, and were therefore excluded from most of the analyses since their level of on-task behavior was already deemed as proficient. It was noted that the use of Revibe for children who did not need it did not produce any significant negative or deleterious effects in on-task behavior. The 12 evaluable test subjects who had demonstrated difficulty staying on task during the initial baseline remained. While Revibe is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, it was noted that prior to the study, half of these 12 had been diagnosed with a formal condition such as ADHD or Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Students were observed by third party research assistants (Ph.D students from School Psychology programs at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University, as well as practicing psychologists) in a 1:1 fashion in their normal classroom settings. Observation was limited to Core Classes (e.g., Math, English, Science and Social Studies), and to reduce variables, each student was observed in only one classroom, at the same time of day, by the same observer. Research assistants used a specialized behavioral tracking software to record children as "on-task" (i.e., engaged in expected classroom behaviors, such as listening to a lesson or completing work) or "off-task" (i.e., looking about the classroom, staring at the floor, daydreaming, etc.) every 30 seconds during 30 minute observation sessions (an initial session, and 2-4 random follow-up observations in the weeks after).
All data was sent directly to a third party contract research organization (BioTechnology Transfer, LLC) for scoring and analysis. The study was cleared by the Heartland Institutional Review Board, an independent, third party board that operates in accordance with human subject research standards established by the National Institute of Health (NIH).
Results for Students
- 83% of students with self-regulation deficits showed improvement in on-task behavior
- The average increase in on-task behavior was 19%
- The overall average improvement over baseline was 38%
- The average increase in on-task behavior was 19%
- 100% of improvements in on-task behavior were immediate and sustained for the duration of the three month trial period
- There were no signs of habituation, nor any adverse effects reported
Several months after the observations were completed, teachers and students were all asked to give feedback about their experience with using Revibe by an unknown, neutral surveyor:
- 100% of teachers felt Revibe was a quiet intervention tool which did not distract anyone in the classroom
- 89% of students said they noticed a positive difference in time they spent on-task while wearing Revibe
- Over 80% of teachers and students who used Revibe would recommend it to others
Part 1: Overview
Once the prototype of the self-monitoring wristband device was developed, a student test group with 50 3rd-5th grade students was conducted to achieve the following goals: a) to ensure the device functions as intended, b) gather simultaneous behavioral observations and wristband sensor data to establish algorithms for intelligent modulation of tactile prompts, and c) gather input from students to guide the selection of the type and content of gamified rewards, finalize design specifications for the wristband, and gauge overall perception. We collected behavioral observations and sensor data during four different academic and play activities, which were then used to establish initial algorithms for intelligent modulation of tactile prompt schedules. We also gathered student feedback via pencil-and-paper ratings and qualitative discussion groups to finalize wristband specifications, establish the art style and game mechanics for the online gamified rewards systems for students, and measure overall perceptions of the product.
To participate, students had to a) be in 3rd-5th grade (7-11 years old), b) experience significant deficits in self-regulation (defined as a score of at or above 5 of the Activity Level subscale, at or below 3 on the Attentional Focusing subscale, at or above 5 on the Impulsivity subscale, or at or below 3 on the Inhibitory Control subscale of the parent-report Child-Behavior Questionnaire-Short Form; CBQ-S), c) attend a regular education classroom for at least 40% of the school day, d) be English language proficient, and e) have parent permission to participate.
Results for Students
Results of a CBQ-S analysis showed a "significant increase in attentional focusing across the trial period",
t(28) = 2.71, P = 0.011.
Overall, students were very positive about the usability of the self-monitoring wristband device. Representative comments about the prototype include the following:
- "It helps me focus more."
- "It helps me learn."
- "It looks cool."
- "It's a really cool thing,"
- "It's the best."
- "I like everything about it."
- "It is the perfect size."
- "It's very comfortable."
- "Overall, it's awesome."
- "It looks futuristic."
Students commented that they would be motivated to wear the wristband while at school and at home. Representative reasons for why include the following:
- "To remind me when I'm off-task."
- "Because it will help me pay attention."
- "It is nice and cool."
- "It could help me get my work done quicker."
- "To help me stay on-task."
- "I get off-task and forget about homework."
Part 2: Overview
In order to participate, teachers needed to teach students in grades 1-5 and commit to using Revibe with at least one student for a period of two weeks. Of the eligible and selected participants, 26 teachers participated (Mage = 36 years; 25 female; 88.5% Caucasian, 3.8% African American, and 7.7% declined to report race/ethnicity; 1-16+ years of experience, with the average participant reporting about 10 years of experience). After consenting to participate, four teachers attrited from the study (two reported personal events that prevented them from having the time to participate and two were unable to receive parent consent). Teachers were asked to identify at least one student to participate in the study with them. In order to participate, students needed to be enrolled at a participating school, in grades 1-5, and have parental permission to participate. 29 students participated (Mage = 9 years; 23 boys; two 1st graders; eight 3rd graders; six 4th graders; thirteen 5th graders; 56.7% identified with ADHD diagnosis; 46.7% on medication; 56.7% Caucasian, 23.3% African American, 10% more than one race, 3.3% American Indian or Alaska Native, and 3.3% declined to report race/ethnicity). To ensure that responses were not reflective of practices and policies of one school or type of school, five different schools in NC participated (two charter, two public, one alternative educational program).
During the trial, students received personalized prompts over the course of their school day and self-recorded on-task vs. off-task behavior by tapping the device screen (2x or 1x, respectively). The software tracked the timing and number of prompts, self-recorded data, and activity sensor data. At the end of the trial, students provided qualitative comments and quantitative ratings on a Likert-scale in the following areas: a) comfort, b) attractive, c) distracting, d) stigmatizing to wear, e) ease of use, f) clarity of prompts, g) value for self-monitoring, h) useful for helping stay on task, i) would want to continue to use in school, and j) would want to use for homework at home.
Before and after the trial, teachers rated their students’ Activity Level, Attentional Focusing, Impulsivity, and Inhibitory Control using the teacher version of the Child Behavior Questionnaire-short form (CBQ-S). Additionally, at the end of the trial, teachers rated each component of the Revibe as well as the overall product on a Likert-scale in the following areas: a) quality, b) value, c) feasibility, and d) utility. Teachers also rated the degree to which they would recommend Revibe to other educators and would want to use the product themselves following Phase II full development and testing.
Results for Students
Rating Scale (1-5): 1 = Never, 2 = Rarely, 3 = Occasionally, 4 = Frequently, 5 = Very Frequently
The wristband helped me stay on-task more often.
The wristband helped me pay attention in class.
I would want to continue wearing the wristband at school even though the research study is over.
Results for Teachers
Rating Scale (1-5): 1 = Never, 2 = Rarely, 3 = Occasionally, 4 = Frequently, 5 = Very Frequently
Revibe Connect will be useful in the classroom setting
If developed fully, Revibe Connect will be a useful tool in supporting students self-monitor their on-/off-task behavior.
Revibe Connect is an innovative way to help student self-monitor their on-/off-task behavior.
If fully developed, I would use Revibe Connect in my classroom.
I think my students’ parents would find Revibe Connect helpful.
I would recommend Revibe Connect to other educators.
I think my school should use Revibe Connect.
Revibe Connect would be valuable to schools for data collection and progress monitoring in areas of focus/academic engaged time.
The following data analysis was conducted using 1,600 Revibe Connect users over a three week time frame. Each user wore the Revibe Connect for a minimum of three days per week during the data collection period. Only students under the age of 18 were considered, though there are also adult use cases of this technology. Focus Rate (percentage of time spent on-task) and Attention Span (length of potential workflow) were used to measure gains in on-task behavior. The data was analyzed by demographic group, aggregated by gender and elementary, middle, and high school aged students. While the improvements seen in this report are impressive, it is important to note that any improvements in on-task behavior, no matter how small, are a success.
Results for All Students
For all students ages 18 years and under, the average initial Attention Span (i.e. baseline) was 8 minutes. After one week using Revibe Connect, the average Attention Span for the entire group increased to 11 minutes (37.50% gain over baseline). After three weeks of using Revibe Connect, the average Attention Span for the entire group increased to 12 minutes, (50% gain over baseline).
For the same group of all students under the age of 18 years old, Focus Rate was also examined. The group started with a baseline average Focus Rate of 54%. After one week using Revibe Connect, the students averaged a Focus Rate of 63% (16.7% gain over baseline). After three weeks of using Revibe Connect, the students averaged a Focus Rate of 66% (22% gain over baseline).
Results for Male Elementary Students
The group of male elementary school students started with a baseline Attention Span of 8 minutes. After one week of wearing Revibe, this group of students increased their Attention Span to 10 minutes (25% gain over baseline). After wearing Revibe for three weeks, male elementary school students showed an average Attention Span of 11 minutes (37.5% gain over baseline).
The baseline Focus Rate for this group started at the lowest of all the male groups at 53%. After one week of wearing Revibe, male elementary school students showed an improved average Focus Rate of 62% (17.0% gain over baseline). After three weeks of wearing Revibe, this group improved again to an average Focus Rate of 65% (22.6% gain over baseline).
Results for Female Elementary Students
The baseline Attention Span for female elementary school students was 8 minutes. After one week of wearing Revibe Connect, the group’s Attention Span increased to 10 minutes (25% gain over baseline). After three weeks, the Attention Span for female elementary school students increased to 12 minutes (50% gain over baseline).
The Focus Rate of this group, female elementary school students, started at 54%. After one week of wearing Revibe Connect, the Focus Rate increased to 61% (13% gain over baseline). After three weeks of wearing Revibe Connect, the Focus Rate for the group increased to 66% (22.2% gain over baseline).
Results for Male Middle School Students
Similar to the male elementary group, male middle school students started with a baseline Attention Span of 8 minutes. After wearing Revibe for one week, this group saw an impressive jump to an average Attention Span of 12 minutes (50% improvement over baseline). At the three week mark this group saw another increase to an Attention Span of 14 minutes (75% gain over baseline).
This group started with the highest baseline Focus Rate for male students of 57%. At the one week point, the average Focus Rate for the group increased to 68% (19.3% gain over baseline). After three weeks of wearing Revibe, the Focus Rate for male middle school students increased again to 69% (21.0% gain over baseline).
Results for Female Middle School Students
Female students in middle school started with a baseline Attention Span of 9 minutes. After one week of wearing Revibe, the average Attention Span for the group increased to 12 minutes (33.3% gain over baseline). At the three week mark, female middle school students had an average Attention Span of 13 minutes (44.4% gain over baseline).
There were gains in Focus Rate for female middle school students. The baseline Focus Rate for the group started at 58%. The Focus Rate at one week was 67% (15.5% gain over baseline). This improvement stayed the same at the three week mark with an average Focus Rate of 67%, maintaining the 15.5% gain over baseline.
Results for Male High School Students
The last group of males were high school students. This group actually started with the lowest Attention Span of all male groups at 7 minutes. After one week, this group had an average Attention Span of 9 minutes (28.6% gain over baseline). After three weeks, the group saw similar numbers to the others with a 12 minute average Attention Span (71.4% increase over baseline).
The baseline Focus Rate for the group of male high school students was 56%. After one week, this group reached an average Focus Rate of 66% (17.9% gain over baseline). At the three week mark, male high school students showed the highest average Focus Rate of any group in the case study at 74% (32.1% gain over baseline).
Results for Female High School Students
The last female group to be analyzed was female high school students. This group started with the shortest Attention Span of the three female groups at 6 minutes. After one week of wearing Revibe, this group jumped to an Attention Span of 12 minutes (100% gain over baseline). At the three week mark, this group still averaged a 12 minute Attention Span, continuing the 100% gain over baseline.
This group also showed the lowest starting Focus Rate at 51%. After one week of wearing Revibe, female high school students had an average Focus Rate of 58% (13.7% gain over baseline). After wearing Revibe for three weeks, this group’s average Focus Rate increased again to 61% (19.6% gain over baseline).
In summation of our research to date, while Revibe may not be a tool for everyone, it did appear to help many students improve on-task behavior in these discrete studies:
- The initial pilot study of vibration technology saw immediate and sustained improvements in on-task behavior for 83% of students with self-regulation deficits. Over 80% of students and teachers who used Revibe in this study would recommend it to others.
- In the U.S. Department of Education-funded study, there were statistically significant increases in attentional focusing for the duration of the trial period. Overall, the qualitative and quantitative data collected confirmed students and teachers were very positive about the usability and effectiveness of Revibe.
- In our most recent analysis of real-life user data, all demographic groups showed an increase in on-task behavior. Improvements in Focus Rate and Attention Span were seen within one week, and sustained or increased through the three week mark.
Please remember, Revibe is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Each child’s case should be handled individually to accommodate their particular needs.
Revibe™ Vibration Reminder Watches are manufactured by Revibe Technologies, Inc.
Interested in participating in our research studies or focus groups?
We occasionally conduct these to help inform future improvements to Revibe. Our live events are held in the Raleigh-Durham area, but there may be opportunities to participate online, so please indicate if you are interested in that option. Feedback from parents, students, and adult users is very helpful to us. Thanks for your interest!